Professor Jacques Durand 講演会



Professor Jacques Durand 講演会
Emeritus Professor of Linguistics at the University of Toulouse and an Honorary Senior Member of the Institut Universitaire de France

日時:1月26日(木) 18:15-19:30
場所:早稲田大学  早稲田キャンパス 3号館306号室 及び ZOOMで同時配信

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演題: “On the birth of the International Phonetic Alphabet in France at the end of the 19^th century and the beginning of the 20^th century”

要旨: The birth of the international phonetic alphabet (IPA) is often described as the result of a collective effort and it was (MacMahon 1986). But the linguist whose role was crucial to the setting up of the International Phonetic Association was the Frenchman Paul Passy a highly controversial figure because of his revolutionary leftwing positions and religious commitment as a Christian Baptist (Galazzi 2002, Durand & Lyche 2019, 2021). In this paper, I examine the birth of the Association which was preceded by two other phonetic teachers’ associations in France both presided by Paul Passy. I set it within the context of the famous 1886 Stockholm Congress which set a new path for the teaching of modern languages (Howatt & Smith 2002). I show however how Passy’s position was among the most radical in advocating only phonetic transcriptions in the first stages of teaching foreign languages but also in defending a reform of French spelling. Indeed, he led by example by publishing the first editions of his book on the sounds of French (Passy 1887) in reformed spelling. In parallel, he launched the/Maître Phonétique/as the journal of the Association Phonétique Internationale and defended right to the end its publication solely in phonetic script. This position was then taken on by his follower and nephew through marriage, Daniel Jones (Collins & Mees 1999). These various stances combined with Passy’s reservations about experimental phonetics were among the factors which nearly sank the IPA project after the First World War. We will therefore see how, from co-creator of the IPA, Passy nearly became its gravedigger!

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